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,$■©00©* 000© 

®en purine** Commanbment* 

1. Thou shalt not wait for something to turn up, but thou 
shalt pull off thy coat and go to work, so thou mayst prosper 
in thy affairs and make the word "failure " spell "success." 

2. Thou shalt not be content to go about thy business look- 
ing like a bum, for thou shouldst know that thy personal 
appearance is better than a letter of recommendation. 

3. Thou shalt not make excuses, nor shalt thou say to those 
who chide thee "I didn't think." 

4. Thou shalt not wait to be told what thou shalt do, nor 
in what manner thou shalt do it, for thus may the days be 
long in the job which fortune hath given thee. 

5. Thou shalt not fail to maintain thine integrity, nor shalt 
thou be guilty of anything that will lessen thine own respect 
for thyself. 

6. Thou shalt not covet the other fellow's job, nor his sal- 
ary, nor the position he hath gained by his own hard labor. 

7. Thou shalt not fail to live within thine income, nor shalt 
thou contract any debts which thou canst not [see thy way 
clear to pay. 

8. Thou shalt not be afraid to blow thine own horn, for he 
who faileth to blow his own horn at the Jproper occasion, 
findeth nobody standing ready to blow it for him. 

9. Thou shalt not hesitate to say "No," when thou meanest 
"No," nor shalt thou fail to remember that there are times 
when it is unsafe to bind thyself by a hasty judgment. mmsgM 

10. Thou shalt give every man a square deal. This is the 
.last and great commandment, and there is no other like unto 
it. Upon this commandment hang all the law and profit of 

the business world. 



pr — -si 
bL in jd 

a magazine toueb m tfje interest 
of tfje Jgattbe &mencan 

* 4 + * <2£^£ 

Collection of Native North American Indian Books, 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

Earl Ford McNaughtonX^ 

Volume 8 January, 1916 Number 5 


The Meaning of the Ute "War" 

By M.K. Sniff en, Secretary Indian Rights Association 149 

Training Indian Girls for Efficient Home 

By Elizabeth G. Bender - - - - 154 


An Address by George P. Donehoo, D. D. - 157 

History of Stone Used for Shikellamy 

By Christopher Wren - - - 162 

U-Le-Lah, The Pocohontas of Florida, or The 
princess of hlrrihigua — 

By Minnie Moore-Willson - - - 165 

Indian Blood— 

From the Piqua {Ohio) Call - - - 170 

A Woman Without a Country— 

By Charles E. Waterman - - - 171 


By R. W. Shufeldt, Major, Medical Corps, U. S. Army 175 


From the Overland Monthly - - - 178 

OSCAR H. LIPPS, Superintendent. 

Entered as second-class matter. Ten numbers each year. One dollar per year. 
Printed by Indians of many tribes under the instruction of Arthur G. Brown, 

The Meaning of the Ute "War:" 

By M. K. Sniffen, Secretary Indian Rights Association. 

ISTORY has repeated itself many times in Indian 
Affairs, and the recent trouble with the non-reser- 
vation Utes, in Utah, is merely one of those incidents 
that were so common in the early days of this country. 

In order that we might learn what really was be- 
hind that incident, and what actually happened in 
that inacessible region, while visiting some Indian 
reservations I took a horseback trip, last September, 
from Cortez, Colorado, to Bluff and vicinity in the 
State of Utah. 

I found that there were two distinct elements among these Utes: two 
small groups, under the leadership of Polk and Posey (both of whom are 
reputed, generally, to be lawless and defiant), with no settled homes, but 
usually camping near Bluff, and a much larger number of industrious 
Indians living on the public domain in Allen Canyon and on the Monte- 
zuma Creek. In the trouble that was developed, however, there was no 
discrimination between the good and the bad — all were regarded in the 
same light, as a nuisance (or a hindrance) to the white man. 

The principal character in this affair was the son of Polk, Tse-Ne-Gat 
(or Everett Hatch, as he is usually called), a Ute Indian accused of mur- 
dering a Mexican sheepherder. This matter was fully exploited in the 
newspapers last spring, when it was made to appear that all the Utes in 
that section were on the war-path, "armed to the teeth," and prepared to 
resist any effort of the authorities to arrest Hatch. In view of this 
"dangerous" state of affairs, and the alleged inability of the United States 
marshal to get Hatch, a posse was organized in Colorado and sent to Bluff, 
Utah, near where the Indian wanted was supposed to be. According to 
the best information I could obtain from people in position to know about 
two-thirds of this posse was composed of the "rough-neck" and "tin-horn" 
class, to whom shooting an Indian would be real sport! Probably twenty- 
five of these eminent citizens, fully armed with everything but a warrant, 
attacked those Utes who were camped near Bluff one morning about day- 

That the Indians were not spoiling for a fight, or even prepared for it, 

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is evident from the fact that they did not take the precaution to guard 
their camp, and they were therefore easily surprised. Indeed, I was in- 
formed that some of them were unarmed, their guns being in pawn. The 
posse took positions on both sides of the hills overlooking the Indians' 
camp, in the wash near Bluff, and fired a volley into the tents. Naturally, 
the Indians were aroused, and thinking they were going to be killed, they 
tried to escape. Polk and his son, with several other Indians, sought a 
sheltered spot and returned the fire. Meanwhile, Posey, hearing the 
shooting, came up from his camp, a mile or so below, as his son was visiting 
the Bluff contingent. In the brief battle an Indian child was shot through 
the legs, one Indian who was seeking shelter was killed, and a member of 
the posse was also killed. And the attempt to arrest Hatch ingloriously 

Later, Mancos Jim, at the urgent request of the whites at Bluff, visited 
the camp of the Indians and induced the men to surrender. As they 
were coming towards the town Polk and Posey and a few of their followers 
escaped. Several of the Indians were made prisoners and confined in a 
second-story room over the Zion Co-operative Store at Bluff. They were 
shackled hand and foot and armed guards placed in charge of them. 
After the posseman was killed his friends were eager to "shoot anything 
that looked like an Indian"; and it was not strange to learn that one of 
the prisoners who "attempted to escape" by jumping from the second- 
story window was shot to death. The prisoners were securely ironed and 
incapable of doing serious harm to the armed guards, who were fully pre- 
pared for any emergency. It is claimed by one of the prisoners, after his 
release, that the guards indulged in the "gentle" pastime of holding guns 
to their heads and against their bodies, at the same time threatening to 
shoot. In view of these circumstances, it would seem that the killing of 
the prisoner was a deliberate act of vengeance, and wholly unnecessary, 
since he could readily have been restrained by physical force. 

The rest of the "dangerous" Indians were driven from the vicinity of 
Bluff and started up the San Juan River for the Navajo Reservation. 
Bluff was strongly guarded by the posse, but no protection was arranged 
for the traders and the Government farmer, with their families, on whom 
these Indians were turned loose. A warning was not even sent them. 
What happened? Those so-called dangerous Indians stopped at the 
traders' stores, bought some supplies, and camped among or near the 
Navajos, and no one was disturbed! 

After the bungling attempt to arrest Hatch, the posse camped at Bluff 
and merely "marked time." General Hugh L. Scott, of the United States 
Army, was sent by the Government to handle the situation. . Incidentally 
the first thing he did was to disband the posse. Then he went out to the 
few belligerent Indians and had no trouble in inducing them to surrender, 

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in spite of the fact that one of the Mormons at Bluff said he "would have 
been willing to bet a thousand dollars that Scott could not bring those 
Indians in." 

Subsequently, Hatch was tried in the Federal Court at Denver on the 
charge of murder. The case of the Government was so weak, and the 
argument of the defense so convincing, that it took the jury less than five 
minutes to return a verdict of "not guilty." The evidence against Hatch 
was insufficient, in the first place, and had there been no other motive 
behind this effort, opportunities were not lacking when he could have been 
arrested in Bluff. But the case against Hatch was only a pretext for 
something else. One of the Mormons declared that "when they get 
Hatch, they will take all the other Indians away from this part of Utah." 

For many years, one hundred or more Indians made their homes in 
Allen Canyon and on the Montezuma Creek (on the public domain) in 
San Juan County, Utah. They were industrious, peaceable and self- 
supporting, and a number of them had built permanent homes, had fenced 
fields, and were making good progress. That part of Allen Canyon where 
Mancos Jim and his band lived is now included in a National Forest 
Reserve. He has a certificate stating that "the Forest Service has set 
aside the allotment for the said Mancos Jim and his little band of Indians, 
and all trespassers will be dealt with according to law." 

As soon as the posse arrived in Bluff the cattlemen rode among these 
industrious Indians in Allen Canyon and along Montezuma Creek, and by 
threats and intimidating methods so frightened them that they fled for 
their lives, as they believed. 

As has been stated, there was also a lawless element of the Utes, several 
small bands of them, without permanent homes, who "drifted" up and 
down along the San Juan River, and undoubtedly caused trouble among 
the Indians and whites. Had they been taken in hand, it would have 
been well for all concerned. Even now steps should be taken by the 
authorities to bring that element under law and discipline. 

The principal industry in San Juan County, Utah, in which Bluff is 
situated, is the stock business. The herds and flocks of the white men 
had been steadily increasing, and the question of range was bothering 
them. Consequently, they wanted to get the Indians off the public do- 
main and have undisputed possession of the range. The Hatch incident 
afforded just the opportunity they were looking for. It was then dis- 
covered how "dangerous" the Utes were; they must be "returned" to 
their reservation. While they are registered on the Ute Mountain reser- 
vation, in Colorado, as a matter of fact, most of the Indians concerned 
were born and raised in the sections where they had been living. 

It should also be noted that a law was enacted by Congress in 1884 to 
encourage Indians to leave the reservation and settle on the public do- 

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main; and that under the fourth section of the Severalty Act of 1887 they 
could be protected in their holdings. These Indians had done the very 
thing that Congress had sought to encourage, namely, to maintain them- 
selves off the reservation, and their rights should be protected in every 
possible way. In the face of these facts, it is extraordinary that an official 
of the Indian Service, located in Utah, took the ground that these Indians 
ought to be put on the reservation and forced to stay there if it took 
troops to accomplish that result! 

The Ute Mountain Reservation, to which these Indians nominally be- 
long, is a tract of 480,000 acres (in southwestern Colorado), but not more 
than 10,000 acres of it is capable of irrigation, if water could be secured. 
At the present time there is no more water than is needed for the Indians 
who are permanently located on the reservation, and if any additional 
number were put there it would work a great hardship on all of them. 
These non-reservation Utes were "making good," and they certainly 
should not be forced to go on a reservation unless they could be given 
something at least as good as that which they are asked to give up. To 
forcibly remove them now would mean to sweep away all the progress 
they have made in industry, self-support, and self-respect, to say nothing 
of the discouragement incident to making another start under adverse 
circumstances. In fact, they could not make a living on the reservation 
under present conditions; they would have to be put on a ration basis; 
reduced from a progressive, independent element to an absolutely depend- 
ent class — certainly a distinct backward step. 

At the present time these industrious Utes are camped on or near the 
extension of the Navajo Reservation, in southeastern Utah. Many of 
them, in their hurried leaving, had to abandon their stock and other 
possessions. One of them told me how he had developed his home on 
Montezuma Creek; the way he was ordered away by armed cowboys, the 
loss of his stock, etc., and his desire to go back to it. He said, "Washing- 
ton no savvy ; no talk. If Washington talk, 'You go back,' I say 'all right; 
give me paper; I go back.' Me have good ranch; nice place. Now, no 
home, no land, no water. Navajo Springs no good." He is only one of 
a number. This progressive element is now at a standstill, waiting to see 
what the Government intends to do on their behalf. They contend that 
the Navajo Springs Reservation is "no good, no wood, no water." And 
they are right; I visited the reservation. At present they have nothing 
to do but draw rations twice a month. If some steps are not soon taken 
to change their status trouble is likely to develop. It is not a good plan 
to have a hundred or more Indians "sit down, every day all same Sun- 
day." Furthermore, it is not just to the Navajos; their range is limited, 
and bringing on additional stock will not improve conditions. 

In line with the effort to drive out all the Utes from San Juan County, 

! 152 5i 

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at the time of my visit the cattlemen were riding around among a number 
of Navajo families living on the public domain, along the San Juan River, 
ordering them to "get out." These Navajos also have been located there 
for generations; they are industrious and self-supporting, and their rights 
also should be respected. 

It is interesting to note that seven years ago Mr. Levi Chubbuck, then 
an inspector of the Interior Department, was sent to investigate "com- 
plaints made by the whites against Indians in San Juan County, Utah." 
His report, submitted under date of August 22, 1908, contained recom- 
mendations which, had they been properly acted upon, might have 
afforded protection for these non-reservation Utes. But nothing was 

In Mr. Chubbuck's report the opinion is expressed that "the trouble 
between the whites and the Indians arose largely from a desire on the part 
of the whites to acquire more grazing land as their flocks and herds 

According to this report, among those who made complaints against 
the Indians were "the three white men most vitally interested in the graz- 
ing privilege of the district in dispute." 

Mr. Chubbuck further states: "The white complainants were surprised 
to learn that under the land laws of the United States of the Indian Home- 
stead Act of July 4, 1884, the Indians had a right to go on the public do- 
main and take up land, and that it was the policy of the Indian Office to 
encourage them to do this; that the whole tendency of modern adminis- 
tration of Indian Affairs is in the direction of breaking up rather than con- 
solidating the reservation system." 

In spite of this information that was given to those cattlemen, seven 
years ago, as to the legal rights of the Indians to be on the public domain, 
they would not let the Utes alone. It would seem that there is a class of 
white men in San Juan County, Utah, that ought to be taught to respect 
the law. Let the United States authorities deal not only with them, but 
also the lawless element among the Utes that has caused trouble for both 
whites and Indians. 

Rev. Sherman Coolidge, President of the Society of American Indians, 
when in San Francisco during the past summer, met a Ute boy who was 
playing in a band. He said to him, "What you Utes need is a white man's 
chance." The boy replied, "No! Give us half a chance and we will take 
care of the other half." 

The progressive Utes herein referred to are now patiently waiting to 
see if the United States Government intends to give them "a white man's 
chance." Surely they have proved their right to it. 

Training Indian Girls for Efficient 
Home Makers: 

By Elizabeth G. Bender. 

DO NOT intend to tire the reader with long drawn 
out stories of broken treaties, the misappropriation 
of Indian money, nor do I intend to dwell on the sub- 
ject of how we have been starved and pampered on 
various reservations. Lamenting over past abuses, 
hanging around Indian trading stores, demanding 
certain rights, does not solve the Indian Problem. 
We hear a great deal about developing leaders for leadership and are 
apt to forget that our girls are to be the sources of such leadership, too, 
for they represent our homemakers and homekeepers. 

In traveling over this great country of ours, I have noticed that the 
best schools, the most productive farms, the most sanitary conditions 
exist only where educated fathers and mothers have given their sons and 
daughters the proper home life. But as I have traveled through the 
Indian country, I have not seen many homes on this order. The con- 
ditions are just the reverse. The unkempt homes which are breeding 
places for filth and disease outnumber the homes of cleanliness and 
Christian training, and thousands and thousands of acres of Indian lands, 
rich in undeveloped resources, are lying idle. 

The time was when the Government school system met the necessary 
requirements, but it lacks in the fact that it does not teach our girls and 
boys the real value of labor and the cost of materials. They are not 
impressed with money values and how much it means to make a living 
for themselves. 

Can we expect to develop great, strong Christian leaders in spite of 
such home conditions? Yes, we can. We can take our youth away 
from home, send them off to such schools as Haskell, Carlisle, or Hampton 
for a period of years, give them an even better education than these now 
offer, and have them associate with high minded instructors who shall 

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teach them that the home is the very core of any civilization, that the 
ideal home shall permeate its environment and bring it into keeping with 
that of their school. When we shall have done this no girl will be ashamed 
of her people or disgusted with her lot. 

Often in the Indian country we find father speaking intelligent Eng- 
lish, using the latest implements in farming, thrifty and industrious. 
But you wonder why his home does not show the result of his labor. You 
will have to look farther. Does the mother speak English? Does she 
know anything about food values? Has she had the training of Home 
Economics and Domestic Science? Does she know anything about 
nursing and first aid to the injured? Does she know anything about 
organizing Mothers' Clubs and Girls' Clubs for the advancement and 
betterment of her community? You will find that that side of her edu- 
cation has been neglected. As no people advance any faster than their 
women and the home is conceded to be the core of the Indian problem, 
my plea is that these Indian girls should receive a fair chance. 

Nearly all the large Indian schools have trade schools in which our 
young men are taught the various trades, but the Indian girls must day 
after day do the menial drudgery of the school, working in the laundry, 
washing dishes, with little time for recreation and play. 

More and more we are beginning to appreciate the fact that the In- 
dian girl along with this sort of work must be given a thorough course in 
Home Economics and Domestic Science. The Indian girl was naturally 
a homemaker even in the days of savagery. She it was who pitched 
tent, tilled the little garden, and at that early stage made something of 
a home for her roaming people. 

Carlisle, for the first time in its history, has installed such a course. 
We have this year built a model home cottage, in which the girls get a 
real taste of home-life for a month. Here our girls are being trained how 
to cook over a common stove, to take care of kerosene lamps, and to pre- 
pare three meals a day in the most wholesome and economical way. In 
this model cottage she is to learn the art of cooking cereals, vegetables, 
eggs, fish, bread, cake, and pastry, besides the proper setting of a table 
and the preparation and serving of family meals. Invalid cookery, can- 
ning of fruits and vegetables, jelly making and pickling will be a part of 
the course. She will also learn how to do the plain, everyday sewing, so 
needful in a home of this kind. 

I believe that this sort of training will give her a broader outlook on 
life and make her realize the tremendous responsibility that confronts 
her as a homemaker. She will look upon her lot as a sacred calling and 
appreciate the dignity and nobility of labor. 

Along with Home Economics and Domestic Science, have her realize 
that she, too, has a social problem. Have her study sociology in its 

January 'ill 

broadest sense so that she shall know the relation of character building 
to health, recreation, business, and racial welfare. 

One writer tells us that "Education is not simply the art of developing 
powers and capacities of the individual ; it is rather the fitting of individ- 
uals for efficient membership. It should fit one for social service. It 
should create the good citizen." 

My plea is for a broader and more comprehensive education for the 
girl than has ever been given before. 

Lastly, we must teach our girls to go out as strong, Christian leaders, 
for not only must they be good homemakers but also soul savers. I have 
been in some schools where this side of Christian education was sadly 
lacking. Do we not boast of belonging to a Christian Nation and are we 
not all seeking after the same God? Then teach my people more about 
the Great Spirit, so that they too shall be morally strong. Our girls as 
well as our boys must have great and compelling ideals. These are prac- 
tical lines along which our girls should be educated. I think that some- 
thing on this plan will produce the homes we wish to see in the Indian 
country, the Great West, the land of wonderful opportunities. 

We are a people that have always lived in the country, fished in the 
rivers, lived on its hills, raced upon its plains and that is where our home- 
makers belong. The West is where we wish to solve the Indian Problem, 
building up better schools, better churches, and better homes. 

(Illustration Accompaning "Navajo Notes, ") 

Erected by the Ft, Augusta Chapter, D. A. R., in Cooperation with the Pennsylvania 
Historical Commission, June, 1915 


An Address by George P. Donehoo, D. D. 

T WOULD not be possible for me, in the time allotted 
for this address, to give a complete history of the life, 
character and work of the Oneida chieftain in whose honor 
we to-day unveil this memorial. To trace all of the in- 
fluences which had their origin in the relations of this 
Iroquois vicegerent with the Province of Pennsylvania would require a 
full discussion of the Indian policy of colonial Pennsylvania, and all of 
the varied developments to which this policy led during the entire period 
of the French and Indian War and of the Revolutionary period as well. 

Let me briefly recall a few of the facts which led to the sending of this 
diplomat to Shamokin. From the time of the landing of William Penn 
on the Delaware, in 1683, there was a gradual migration of the aboriginal 
tribes from that river to the Susquehanna. The various land purchases 
along the Delaware finally drove the entire body of the Delaware and 
Shawnee to the waters of the Susquehanna, and even over the great divide 
to the Ohio. This migration had reached its high tide about 1727-1740. 
In 1698 the Shawnee had entered the Province from the Potomac region 
and gradually moved northward along the Susquehanna to Shamokin 
and Wyoming. By 1727 a large settlement of Delaware, Shawnee, and 
Tutelo had established themselves at the site of Shamokin, at the forks 
of the north and west branches of this river. 

Previous to the occupation of this strategic point by these tribes the 
site of Shamokin had been occupied by the historic Susquehannocks, or 
Minquas, whose villages spread up the West Branch to Lock Haven, and 
up the North Branch to Spanish Hill, at the site of the large fortified 
.village of Carantouan. How long a period before the time of their final 
overthrow by the Iroquois these related tribes occupied this region is 
unknown. But that the Susquehannock period of occupation was a long 
one is certain from all of the evidence obtainable. After the destruction 
and subjection of the Susquehannocks, the ancient Andastes, or Cones- 
toga, in 1675, the Iroquois claimed the lands along the Susquehanna 
river by right of conquest. When the Delaware and Shawnee commenced 
to settle upon these lands along the upper Susquehanna, they were per- 
mitted to do so by the Iroquois Confederation. Owing to the various 
land sales on the lower Susquehanna and along the Delaware, and also 
because of the troubles arising from the liquor traffic among the Indians 
on the Susquehanna and Ohio, Shikellamy was sent by the Six Nations 
to Shamokin, in 1728, to have supervision of the Delaware and Shawnee 
and other tribes, and also to look after all matters relating to the settle- 
ment and purchase of the Indian lands by the whites. 

Very little is known of the early life of Shikellamy. According to 
Bettram he was an adopted Frenchman, born in Montreal and captured 

■\ 158 * TheBedMan J *—> \ 

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by the Oneida, although he himself claimed to be a Cayuga. His name 
is a much corrupted form of the Oneida chieftain title, Ongwaterno-hiat-he 
(Ungquaterughiathe), meaning "It has caused the sky to be light for us." 
The other name applied to him, Swataney, is a corrupt form of Onkhi- 
swathe-tani, "He causes it to be light for us," or as an appellative, "Our 
Enlightener." The names ending in "us" and "mo," as Shikellemus, 
Shikellemo, are Latinized forms used by the Moravian writers, and are 
corruptions made by Anglicizing and Latinizing the Indian name. Add 
a Mac, or and O' to the Latinized form, and call it MacShikellemus, or 
O'Shikellemo, and you would have the limit of corruption. 

Previous to the time of Shikellamy's entrance upon the Indian policy 
of Pennsylvania all of the affairs of the Province had been conducted 
directly with the Delawares, from the time of Penn's first purchase. 
After this time the Delaware had to sink into the background. This was 
the commencement of the alienation of the Delaware and Shawnee, which 
ultimately drenched Pennsylvania in blood. The haughty chiefs whose 
ancestors had dealt directly with William Penn could not bear the 
humiliation of having their lands sold without their consent, and even 
without any consultation. 

The one weak spot in the colonial policy of Pennsylvania with the 
Indians was the liquor traffic. The chiefs of the Delaware and Shawnee 
had complained about this abuse again and again, without avail. In 1731 
Shikellamy notified the authorities of the Province that unless the 
liquor trade with their subject tribes was regulated, friendly relations 
with the Iroquois would cease. This ultimatum led the Assembly to 
urge Governor Gordon to use every means possible to maintain friendly 
relations with the Iroquois, and for this purpose to call a council with 
them. The Governor then urged the Assembly to pass a bill restricting 
the selling of rum, by the traders, among the Indians. This bill was 
defeated by the Assembly by a large majority. James Logan, in 1731, 
urged the passage of such a measure, saying that the unrestricted sale 
of rum was driving the Delaware and Shawnee to the Ohio, where they 
were coming under the influence of the French. He urged that a treaty 
be held with the Six Nations, as the lords over these subject tribes. 

The coming of the Germans from the Schoharie Valley to Tulpehockin 
in 1731 led to many important events. It brought Conrad Weiser into 
relations with the Province. In December, 1731, Shikellamy went to 
Philadelphia with Conrad Weiser, whom he introduced as the official 
interpreter of the Six Nations. Shikellamy reported the result of a 
mission which he had made to Onondaga, saying that it was too late in 
the season for the chiefs to go to Philadelphia, but that early in the spring 
they would come for a council. It was late in the summer of 1732 before 
the chiefs of the Oneida, Cayuga, and Onondaga arrived in Philadelphia. 

*-» It THE.EEDMAK J 159 4 

At this council the Iroquois promised to use their influence in bringing 
back the Shawnee from the Ohio, and the Province promised to restrict 
the sale of rum among the Indians. Neither of these promises were ful- 
filled. The Shawnee refused to come back, and the traders could not be 
influenced to stop the unrestricted sale of rum. Another council was 
called in Philadelphia in 1736, at which time the Six Nations informed 
the Governor that after the treaty of 1732 it was agreed that Conrad 
Weiser and Shikellamy were the proper persons "to go between the Six 
Nations and this Goverment," and that they would therefore be employed 
to attend all treaties and councils. 

At this council of 1736 the Iroquois set up a claim for the lands south 
of the Blue Mountains, drained by the Delaware River. A deed for these 
was made out, signed and the lands paid for. Thus was established the 
first Iroquois claim for any lands on the Delaware River. William Penn 
had never recognized any such claim, and the Iroquois had never before 
made it. From this time onward Shikellamy and Conrad Weiser were 
supreme in the Colonial affairs of the Province in its relations with the 
Indians. Weiser was a Mohawk by adoption and he thoroughly despised 
both the Delaware and the Shawnee and used every means at his command 
to make the Province accept the terms of the Six Nations. 

From 1736 the friendship of the Delaware and Shawnee was lost. 
These tribes kept moving away from the Susquehanna and from the 
English interest to the Ohio, where the French used every means to gain 
their friendship. 

Shikellamy and Conrad Weiser gained the friendship of the Iroquois 
but in so doing they lost that of the Delaware and Shawnee. While this 
policy ultimately made the Anglo-Saxon supremacy on the continent 
possible, it nevertheless drenched the hills and valley of Pennsylvania in 
blood. Had Colonial Pennsylvania held the friendship of the Delaware 
and Shawnee by a recognition of their land claims and supremacy in 
councils, it would have lost the friendship of the Six Nations. Hostility 
of the Six Nations at this period would have meant the blotting out of 
every English settlement in the Province, if not on the Continent. 
Shikellamy and Weiser evidently did not see the far-reaching influence 
of what they did. It was unconscious statesmanship. 

When the Delaware and Shawnee moved westward to the Ohio they 
did so, not only to get away from the influence of the white settlers, but 
also to get away from the domination of the Six Nations. 

At the great treaty at Lancaster in 1744, when the Iroquois were mak- 
ing an attempt to have the land dispute with Maryland settled, Shikel- 
lamy refused to sign the deed to these lands along the Potomac, realizing 
that such an act on his part might be interpreted as giving some recogni- 
tion to the claims of Maryland in the boundary dispute with Pennsyl- 



TheKedMan » 

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vania. There is little reason to doubt but that Shikellamy was influenced 
in this, as in all other matters by Conrad Weiser, who was the dominating 
force back of everything which this Iroquois deputy did. 

Shikellamy was always friendly to the Moravian missionaries. Count 
Zinzendorf, under the guidance of Conrad Weiser, visited Shamokin in 
1742, when he held a conference with Shikellamy. A Moravian mission 
was built in Shamokin in 1747, and at the same time erected a blacksmith 
shop. The troubles arising because of the Indians neglecting to pay 
their bills at this shop are mentioned by Bishop Cammerhoff, who visited 
the place in 1748, in which year Shikellamy accompanied him to Onon- 
daga. David Brainerd, the missionary, describes the village as it was 
in 1745. He says, "The town lies partly on the east and west shores of 
the river, and partly on the island. It contains upwards of 50 houses 
and 300 inhabitants. About one-half are Delawares and the others are 
Senecas and Tutelars." The Shawnee had moved westward to the Big 
Island, at Lock Haven, and to the Ohio by that time. 

Shamokin was also the place of residence of Allummapees, or Sas- 
sounan, the head chief of the Delawares, so that this place was in every 
sense of the term the Indian capital of Pennsylvania during the period 
from 1728 until 1748. Allummapees died in 1747, and on Dec. 6, 1748 
(17th Reichel) Shikellamy died in abject poverty. In the summer of 
1748 and in the spring of 1749 a famine of unusual severity visited the 
entire Indian villages of the Susquehanna. The Indians were in severe 
want, being obliged to boil grass and bark in order to live. Shamokin 
was deserted in 1749 because of this famine. 

Weiser says in a letter, Oct. 6, 1747, "I set out for Shamokin, by the 
way of Paxtang, because the weather was bad. I arrived at Shamokin 
on the 9th about noon. I was surprised to see Shikellamy in such a mis- 
erable condition as ever my eyes beheld; he was hardly able to stretch 
out his hand to bid me welcome; in the same condition was his wife, his 
three sons not quite so bad; also one of his daughters, and two or three 
of his grandchildren, all had fever; there were three buried out of the 
family a few days before, viz., — Cajadies, Shikellamy 's son-in-law, that 
had been married to his daughter above fifteen years, and reckoned the 
best hunter among all the Indians; also his oldest son's wife, and his 
grandchild." Cammerhoff says in his Journal of Jan. 14, 1748, "Last 
autumn many of his family died, viz., his wife, his oldest son's wife and 
five children, three of Logan's children, and his son-in-law and some of 
his children." 

In October, 1748, Baron John de Watteville visited the various missions 
along the Susquehanna. This Bishop of the Moravian Church stopped 
at Shamokin and visited Shikellamy. The visit of this missionary made 
a deep impression on the old chief. Several weeks after the departure 

I 11 TheKedMah it 161 ]\ 

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of Watteville, Shikellamy went to Bethlehem, in order to be more thor- 
oughly instructed in the Christian religion. He professed conversion 
and was baptized — although he had been baptized many years before 
this time by a Jesuit missionary in Canada. He fell ill, at Tulpehocken 
when on his way home, and had barely enough strength left to reach 
Shamokin, where he stretched himself out upon his mat, never to rise 
again. David Zeisberger was present when he died. He left three sons, 
James Logan, John, or Tachnechtoris, and John Petty. Runners were 
sent out to call these to Shamokin. James Logan arrived the day after 
his death. Shikellamy was buried on the 9th of December, in the pres- 
ence of the entire population of the town, in the last resting place of the 
red man, in the plot of ground below the Indian village, and just outside 
of what was later Fort Augusta. James Logan, his second son, was per- 
haps the most famous of his children. Made so by the murder of his 
family, near the mouth of Yellow Creek, on the Ohio, and the famous 
"Logan's Lament." Logan's relatives were murdered in the spring of 
1774. It is stated by some authorities that the relatives killed at this 
time were his mother, younger brother, and sister. The latter had a 
half-breed son, who escaped. This sister of Logan had been a mistress 
of Col. John Gibson, the Commander at Fort Pitt, and it is stated that 
the boy who escaped was a son of Col. Gibson. 

After 1749 the passing of Shikellamy, the Iroquois vice-gerent and of 
Allummapees, the Delaware "King," and the migration of the Delaware 
and Shawnee to the Ohio, Shamokin declined as an Indian center. Kit- 
tanning and Logs town on the Ohio then became the centers of Indian 
affairs in the Province. But, the influences which had been set in motion 
by Shikellamy and Conrad Weiser went on over the mountains, after 
these men had both passed away. During the French and Indian War 
the Iroquois, as a confederation, remained neutral. The Delaware and 
the Shawnee both took up the hatchet against the Province, after Brad- 
dock's defeat, striking the first blow just below Shamokin, at the mouth 
of Penns Creek, in October, 1755. 

After all of these years we come here to-day to dedicate this memorial 
to the faithful chief, who never swerved in his friendship to the Province 
to which he was sent as the representative of the Six Nations. He lived 
as a wise man of the red men. He died and was buried as a Christian. 
After all of these years of resting in an unmarked grave, his grave is 
marked by the official action of the State, whose existence he did more 
to make possible than any red man who ever loved the beautiful river on 
which he now is resting. In accordance with the customs of his race we 
here to-day cover his grave with this token of a State's respect, and 
place this memorial to the memory of a loyal friend of the Province of 
Pennsylvania, in the dark days which came before the storm of war. 

Interesting History of Stone Used for 
Shikellamy Monument: 

An Address by Christopher Wren. 

|HRISTOPHER WREN, who gave to the Sunbury 
Chapter of the D. A. R. the boulder which was recently 
dedicated as a marker to the Indian Chief Shikellamy, 
delivered a very interesting address at the unveiling, 
which took place at Sunbury, Pa., October 15, 191^^* 
Mr. Wren's address follows: 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen: The part 
which has been assigned to me by the committee having in charge the 
ceremonies of unveiling this bronze tablet to the Indian Chief Shikellamy 
to-day, is to give some history of the rock boulder on which the tablet 
is mounted. 

In doing this I shall take occasion to make some references to remote 
ages of the past, in tracing the history of this particular rock strata 
through the various vicissitudes which it has seen. I am pleased that so 
many of the students of the Sunbury public schools are present to hear 
what I shall say in that connection. 

Learned geologists tell us that we shall never see the lower, or founda- 
tion rocks of the earth, as they are located, perhaps, thirty miles below 
the surface, or, in other words, that the outer crust of the earth has been 
disturbed and undergone changes for a distance of about thirty miles 
below the surface. 

At some time, untold ages ago, the earth's surface in this locality went 
through very great changes, resulting in the formation of the mountains 
and valleys which are all about us, and in bringing some of the rocks 
of the lower strata to the surface and even elevating them up on the 
mountain sides. During this period the particular strata or ledge of 


► ' I ; The KedMan 163 

rocks from which this boulder was quarried was forced up and exposed on 
the mountain side several hundred feet above the level of the river near 
Wapwallopen, about forty miles up the valley from this point. 

From the best information I can get this strata was originally about 
two thousand feet below the lowest coal vein, before the upheaval spoken 
of took place, and when we know that the deepest coal vein in Wyoming 
Valley is about eighteen hundred feet below the present surface, it will be 
seen that this boulder was at one time very far down in the bowels of the 
earth. It was thus subjected to great pressure from the weight of the 
overlying rocks upon it. Because of this pressure the rock became very 
close grained, hard and strong. 

These same learned geologists tell us that all that part of Pennsylvania 
lying north of Berwick was at one time covered by sheet ice, or glacier, 
about one-half mile thick, which was moving slowly toward the south- 
west, but melted when it got as far south as Berwick. 

The formation of this sheet of ice took place after the mountains had 
been thrown, as described, as is proven by the fact that when the ice melt- 
ed it produced a great flood, carrying with it masses of rock and earth 
which polished the surface of the rock ledge in which we are interested 

The fact that this polished surface is in practically the same condition 
as it was ages ago when the glacial flood did its work, proves that the rock 
resists the action of the weather to a remarkable degree. 

No lichens, mosses or plants will grow on this rock because it does not 
absorb enough water to support them. When rocks absorb much water, 
they become disintegrated and crumble away by the water contained in 
them expanding by freezing in the winter. 

Many other rocks, like lime stones, are eroded by the rain water dis- 
solving the substance in them which is soluble in water. Those of you 
who have noticed the manner in which the polished surface of very old 
marble tombstones become rough and crumble away, will understand the 
change which has taken place, when you consider that marble contains a 
considerable percentage of lime. 

I have given so much attention to the effect of natural forces on many 
rocks, that you may know that this rock boulder, from our local moun- 
tains, will resist the forces of nature for centuries to come, as it has done 
for ages past. I feel entirely safe in saying that, unless it meets with some 
accident, this rock marker will stand here long years after every person 
in attendance at these ceremonies has passed from the scenes of earth. 

But there is another reason, besides its indestructibility, why this 
particular rock is an appropriate setting for a tablet to a notable North 
American Indian, whose fore-fathers occupied this land before our an- 
cestors even knew that there was a continent of North America. 

P 164 

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For a number of years past I have given some attention to collecting 
the handiwork of the Indian race, in clay, stone, bone, copper, etc., in the 
water-shed of the Susquehanna river. I believe I state a fact when I say 
that most of the hardest and strongest implements, grooved and un- 
grooved, axes, celts, pestles, hoes, etc., which had to withstand the hardest 
usage were made of the same kind of rock as is this boulder. 

My observation of thousands of these implements leads me to believe 
that this was the case along the Susquehanna river from Lancaster county 
on the south to Bradford county on the north, a distance of about two 
hundred miles. 

I may remark briefly that the American Indians by experience and 
practice, had learned to select the stones most suitable for their purpose 
in making implements, and it is doubtful whether the present day work- 
man in stone understands any better how to work stone, even with their 
more improved tools. The Indian appeared to understand the fracture 
of rocks very fully. 

I might talk to you at considerable length about the use of stone by 
the primitive peoples in all parts of the world, in making their stone imple- 
ments, before they had learned that some rocks contained metals which 
could be melted by the use of intense heat, or had learned how to make a 
fire hot enough to produce the necessary intensity of heat, but the present 
occasion does not call for extended remarks along that line. 

I learn that there are many persons here present who wish to at- 
tend the elaborate ceremonies at Selinsgrove this afternoon, so I shall 
be brief. 

As a concrete example of a perfect Indian implement made of the same 
stone as this boulder, I take great pleasure in presenting to Mrs. Gilbert 
Burrows, Regent of Fort Augusta Chapter, D. A. R., under whose aus- 
pices this beautiful tablet is erected, an ungrooved axe, or celt. It is a 
type of implement which was made by peoples in all parts of the world 
when they were living in their stone age. 

This particular specimen was found within the past ten years, on a 
farmer's field, which has since been covered up by the extensive classifi- 
cation yards of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Northumberland, by Mr. 
Frank D. Sholvin, of that place, from whom I secured it for my collection. 
It is undoubtedly several hundred years old at least, during which it has 
been exposed to the vicissitudes of weather and the farmer's plow. 

It is a good example of Indian workmanship in stone, and has the addi- 
tional interest of being associated with your own immediate neighbor- 
hood, which was the reason I selected it from numerous similar specimens. 

In conclusion, I wish to express to Fort Augusta Chapter my appre- 
ciation of the courtesy shown me by their invitation to be present today 
and to have a part in these very interesting ceremonies. 

U-le-lah, the Pocahontas of Florida, 
or the Princess of Hirrihigua : 

By Minnie Moore-Willson. 

rHE name of the Princess of Hirrihigua is a familiar one throughout 
Florida. Poets have sung it, societies have chosen it for their chapter 
name, historians have gathered smattering bits here and there which give a 
glimpse of the Indian princess. In St. Petersburg the name is borne by the 
local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Despite this 
widespread publicity of the name, few people, however, really know much of 
the story of this fascinating princess. 

It remained for Mrs. Minnie Moore-Willson to relate the true story of 
Hirrihigua and to prepare for publication a fascinating story of this Semi- 
nole princess whose romance is as interesting as that of Pocohontas of Vir- 
ginia. Mrs. Willson is an authority on the Florida aborigines. Her story 
of Hirrihigua is, therefore, as nearly authentic as early records and Indian- 
Spanish lore can make it. The romance of the famous Indian princess as 
prepared by Mrs. Willson is reproduced in full below. 

LMOST simultaneously with the war cry of Europe, the 
Atlantic cables, in peace-loving contrast, were repeat- 
ing to America the account of the dedication services 
at old Gravesend, England to the memory of Pocahon- 
tas, the heroine of Virginia's early history, and our 
Ambassador Page in unveiling the memorial windows 
dwelt largely on her influence as a bond of peace be- 
tween the United States and Great Britian. So today, 
a spirit of thankfulness should come over us as indi- 
viduals and as a nation for the influence of our Virginia princess. 

America grasped hands with our English friends on this occasion, 
when our American officers and sailors from the battleships Missouri and 
Illinois took a prominent part in the ceremonies. 


I 166 I The^dMan f J — 1 

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At the close of this touching ceremony Ambassador Page with our 
American officers and cadets was extended a cordial reception from the 
thousands of persons who had assembled inside and outside the old parish 
church, whose register bears the name of the Indian princess. 

To Florida belongs a romance not less fascinating and wonderful than 
that of Virginia's Pocahontas. But alas, in the "manana" of the first 
Spanish invaders much interesting history was lost to the world. Enough 
has been preserved, however, to excite the imagination and cause this age 
of research to go deep into embalmed records of centuries ago and revive 
the quaint philosophy of the old, entrancing Florida. 

U-le-lah y the Pocahontas of Florida. 

With the extinction of the powerful Hirrihigua tribe passed the life 
story, tantalizing in its meagerness, of the Indian princess, U-le-lah. The 
full history of our lovely Florida princess, who was in very truth the first 
heroine of American romance, slumbers in the unwritten archives of for- 
gotten history, yet one dramatic incident in her life has been preserved 
to us to give us the right to call her "the Pocahontas of Florida," and in 
the heroism of this young Indian girl is a setting for as dramatic a story 
as has been given to history. 

The old chroniclers tell us that the word Hirrihigua which ethnologi- 
cally considered, must be a mixture of both Spanish and Indian, was the 
name of the country first invaded by the Spaniard on Tampa Bay; the 
seat of government of a mighty tribe of aborigines, who according to 
Bourne's Narratives of De Soto, occupied a vast domain extending from 
the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic ocean, and so to the Hirrihigua Chapter 
of Florida who has been the first to honor the memory of this first Ameri- 
can heroine, the history and romance of the Princess U-le-lah is most 
fascinating and worthy of special commemoration. 

Ferdinand DeSoto. 

When the cavalier of Spain in the person of the intrepid Ferdinand 
De Soto, landed in 1539 on Tampa Bay with all the pomp and pageantry 
of the Spanish court, he found himself at a loss for interpreters and guides 
to this wild and strange land. 

Learning of a young Spaniard, Juan Ortez by name, who was the only 
survivor of the great DeNarvaez expedition, and who had been a captive 
of the Indians for ten years, De Soto quickly sought to find him in order 
to use him as a guide for his conquest. 

The history of this young Spaniard, who is reported to have been hand- 
some, together with the saving of his life at a cruical moment by the 
daughter of the proud old Chieftan of Hirrihigua, parallels that of the 
Virginia annals, of Pocohontas and John Smith, and antedates this epoch- 
making history of Virginia almost one hundred years. In memory of 

January \\ 

y "'l[||l''"'l[|i"-ni|||i"M||p|i 

l l '"l||l<"l||||l<-M|pi- l ||||||iM|||||.«-'l||||l^- 

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167 4\ 


Pocahontas, the Lady Rebecca of the English courts, toasts of all England 
have been given; entertainments have been planned in her honor, and 
medals have been struck off to commemorate her visit to the imperial 
court of James the First. 

The proudest blood of Virginia runs through her descendants and 
every history of white America gives the tragic story of her heroism and 
her instrumentality in saving Virginia to the Caucasians. 

Of U-le-lah, our Florida princess, whose heroic stand and womanly 
courage stands out as the peer of any character in history, we know but 
little and honor has been withheld, not only as an Indian princess whose 
father was the emperor of an unbounded area, but as a historical charac- 
ter of gracious personality. She was truly the heroine of the first Ameri- 
can romance, where honor, dignity and a woman's heart shone forth, and 
as Floridans we should endeavor to memorialize her name and her deeds 
in the history of America. A brief sketch of this young Indian girl is 

Juan Ortez, a Spanish youth deserted by his comrades, was captured 
on the shores of Tampa Bay by the Indians, and taken to their chief 
U-ci-ta. This chief was the reigning monarch of this southern province of 
Hirrihigua, and thoroughly embittered against the butchery his people 
had suffered at the hands of De Soto, was ready to wreak vengeance on 
the pale face, the only survivor of the De Narvaez expedition. 

Florida, from the day the first Spanish invaders, with blood hounds, 
chains, battle-axes and sabres, set foot upon her flower-bordered soil, has 
been a battle ground. Her sands have run red with the blood of the in- 
nocent native, who always held out a hand of welcome and gave susten- 
ance from their well filled store houses, while the new comers ever prac- 
ticed the same atrocities and butcheries that are being perpetrated in our 
border country of Mexico today, although with greater cruelties and no 
restraining power. 

It is not surprising that the proud chief of Hirrihigua wished to be 
relieved entirely of every vestige of white blood for added to the rapacities 
from which he and his tribe had suffered, the Narvaez expedition had even 
subjected the chief's mother to the most atrocious cruelties, and thus his 
desire for vengeance upon this representative of the hated white intruders 
was natural. With revenge uppermost in his mind, the chief ordered 
Juan Ortez to be bound hand and foot and placed upon a rack made of 
poles — and to be slowly burned to death. 

(H As history records the account of this tragic scene, the beautiful 
daughter of U-ci-ta, who was about the same age as the handsome Span- 
iard, when she saw the dreadful fate about to be inflicted upon the young 
white stranger, rushed to the burning fagots, and braving the anger of 
her all-powerful father, threw herself at his feet and implored him to spare 

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the life of the captive youth, urging and pleading with all the compassion 
of a woman's heart, that this white stranger had done no injury and that 
it was nobler for a brave and lofty chief like U-ci-ta to keep the youth a 
a captive than to sacrifice so mere a lad to his revenge. 

Looking back four centuries, a vision rises. We stand in the midst 
of an aboriginal people. A tragic scene is before us. We see Indians 
wreaking vengeance for the wrongs inflicted upon them, and a stern 
visaged chieftain, whose word is law, in command. A boyish form is bound 
upon a rack of fagots, with the flames already gently licking the poles and 
creeping to his helpless body. All at once a trembling, girlish form rushes 
to the rescue, and with the pleading of a compassionate woman, forgetting 
her own natural resentment for the past wrongs done her kindred, touches 
her stern and stoical father and secures the release of the captive youth. 

This was the youth Ortez who, released from his fiery bed, was cared 
for by his gentle protector, his burned flesh bound and dressed, and under 
her gentle administrations restored to health, and as an act of honor he 
was given the position of guard over the sepulchres of the dead. It was 
the custom to place the dead upon scaffolds and, as these sepulchres in 
those wilderness days were beset by wolves and wild-cats, a guard watched 
over then day and night. 

Ortez guarded these mausoleums through the lonely hours of the night 
and grew in great favor with the haughty chief tan ; but one night, so the 
narrative goes, a wolf carried away the body of a child of a chief. Ortez 
threw an arrow and wounded it, but did not know that the child had been 
taken. The next morning the loss of the child's body was made known, 
and Ortez ordered to be put to death. Some friendly Indians, following 
on the trail of the wolf, discovered the child, and the wolf lying dead just 
beyond it. The chief, with a justice ever belonging to the American 
Indian, being satisfied of the faithfulness of Ortez, took him again into 

For three years this young Spaniard, now only twenty-one years old, 
continued to live with the Hirrihigua tribe, but at the end of that time a 
fierce war broke out between old chief Ucita and a neighboring tribe. 
According to the savage custom of those days, in order to insure a victory, 
it was decreed that a sacrifice must be made, and the Spanish youth was 
selected as the victim. 

Again U-le-lah, the counselor and friend of her father, and still the 
faithful friend of the white stranger, came at night and warned him that 
he had been selected to be sacrificed the next morning. This act was 
wholly one of womanly courage and compassion, and not for any senti- 
mental consideration for the handsome young Spaniard, for this Indian 
princess was betrothed to the chief Mucoso of another tribe. 

At the midnight hour she came and guided him on his way a half a 

P January 

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league to her lover, sending as guards and envoys two friendly and trust- 
worthy Indians. 

Juan Ortez, with his guides, traveled all night, and morning found 
him on the boundary of Mucoso's territory, where he was met by the 
lover of his fair protector and received with the assurance, so early his- 
torians chronicle, "that if any white men ever came to his country, he 
would allow him to go back with them." 

The old chief of Hirrihigua, much chagrined at his daughter's conduct 
in usurping his kingly authority, demanded of Mucoso the return of 
Ortez. Muscoso refused and his refusal caused such a breach between 
the two monarchs of these big provinces that it was several years before 
Mucoso claimed the fair Indian princess as his bride. With true Indian 
honor he sacrificed his love for a principle, and continued to protect the 
Spanish captive. 

It is an interesting fact in history to know that Ortez remained with 
Mucoso for eight years, until the landing of De Soto, to whom Mucoso, 
keeping his pledge to Ortez, sent him under a guard of several Indians. 

Ortez, now become one of De Soto's band, was however destined to 
live but a short time, for De Soto, with no other object than conquest and 
search for gold, such as he had learned under the way of the relentless 
Pizarra in the land of the Incas, traversed the country murdering and 
plundering the innocent natives until he reached the Mississippi, where, 
it is recorded, Ortez died only a short time before death claimed the proud 
and relentless De Soto. 

Princess of Hirrihigua. 

Of the noble-hearted Indian princess, little more is known, but as a 
heroine, she is truly the peer of the long famed Pocohontas, and her his- 
tory must touch every romance loving heart. 

All Florida should feel a pride in the name of this Indian girl, for to 
her alone is credited the heroism of saving the life of the only Caucasian 
at that time on the southern shores of Florida. For her compassion and 
womanly tenderness, for her heroic stand for justice, this Florida princess 
is deserving, even after four centuries, of recognition, and upon the brow 
of Ulelah, the princess of Hirrihigua, should be lovingly placed laurels of 
gold, and her name commemorated in American annals. 

Particularly should Florida rise to the occasion by proclaiming to the 
world the glorification of her own aboriginal princess, and erecting to 
her memory a memorial commending her bravery and virtue. 


3fatitan Plooti 

N THE early days of the republic, an infusion of In- 
dian blood would have been considered a bar sin- 
ister. No one ever spoke well for the half breed. 
But as the generations go on, many of our older 
families are showing pride in having in their line- 
age some infusion of Indian blood. Among 
them is the family of Mrs. Gait, the President's 
fiancee. Thus the Indian tribes for the first time 
will now be able to claim some slight kinship with 
an occupant of the White House. 

Seen near to, the Indian was never popular. The idea that the 
only good Indian is the dead one was always the view of the 
frontier. He was a rebel from the responsibilities of civilization. 
As many of them are now settling down and cultivating land like 
white folks, the virtues of his race may be better recognized. 

Most of the aboriginal strains are thick-witted, earth-born 
creatures, slow of thought and dull of apprehension. The Indian 
was quick, alert, nervous, lithe of motion, passionate. He was 
capable of affectionate loyalty and fiendish revenges. He had 
his own beauty of imagery and was not lacking in fine ideals. 
He was the poet of the stone age, a dreamer and mystic. 

Other under-developed races have gradually adjusted them- 
selves to the white man's regimen of sober industry. The negro 
never rebelled at being a hewer of wood and drawer of water. 
But for the red man, tilling the ground has been but slavery to 
a proud spirit. Once the owners of a continent, the Indian is but 
an insignificant factor in our life today. Only a slight infusion 
of his blood has entered our race. If old families like Mrs. Gait's 
are proud of it, it is as a poetic sentiment and a sign of the age of 
the family tree. The remnant of the race, however, inherits 
qualities of endurance and imagination, which properly trained in 
the yoke of industry will yet be valuable. — Piqua {Ohio) Call. 

A Woman Without a Country: 

By Charles E. Waterman. 

•LORIDA has ever been a land of mystery and enchant- 
ment — a lure to animal life from insect to genus homo. 
In the old formative days, polypi — myriad-billions of 
them — occupied the shallow waters and with their di- 
minutive bodies built a breakwater to catch the white, 
powdery silt — the wear of time and tide — and form a 
nurturing bed for tall, thin-needled pine, moss-festooned oak and scrubby- 
fronded palmetto. 

Like a long forefinger on the doubled-up fist of North America, it 
beckoned, in the sixteenth century, to Ponce de Leon of old Castile, in 
search of eternal youth; and in the twentieth century to Tom Jones, of 
frost-bound Boston, in search of the same thing. In the new environ- 
ment, sun-bathed to indolence, and under the seductive influence of 
citrus pulp, Tom pondered and dreamed about this wonderful land — 
pondered on its past and dreamed of its future. Present and past met 
sharply — tourist-cities, the advance of civilization in the north; wide- 
spread sand barrens and swamps in the south. It was the world of men 
advancing into the primitive, which held the mystery of the beginning of 
things. Tom Jones, as others of his kind, had only a thin veneer of civiliz- 
ation and the primitive attracted him. He was desirous of laying aside 
the veneer and taking on the full panoply of the primitive. He was eager 
to pierce the uncharted Everglades, eager to penetrate that unfinished 
part of the universe, where unremoved scaffolding yet betrayed the design 
of the builder. He wished to interview the alligator, and absorb what 
that leftover saurian could teach him of the fifth day of creation ; and he 
planned to be guided by a Seminole, who might tell him something about 
the morning of the seventh day. 

r 172 

His wish in part was not difficult of realization. For a man of means, 
it was not difficult to cross the hummocky sand barrens to that great 
morass, the Everglades. It was no very difficult task to find a Seminole 
camp, or engage a dugout and pilot for the reedfilled waters of Lake Oke- 
chobee ; but it was a more difficult matter to gain the confidence of that 
guide, his family and friends. He was the proverbial taciturn Indian, 
tempted for the moment by the glint of gold and what it would buy, to 
forget for a few days his inherited hatred of men with a fairer skin than 
his own. 

The village at which Tom arrived, consisted of a half-dozen palmetto 
thatched huts in which dwelt a family in sectional parts, from grand- 
father to grand child. That is, each son and daughter as he or she took 
upon themselves family life, moved into a separate hut. To a man en- 
nuied with civilization, this simplest of simple life offered much for study 
and contemplation, the toothless old patriarch and his wife, wrinkled, 
scantily clothed, devoid of ornament, waiting for translation to the 
Happy Hunting Grounds; the middle-aged matron, loaded with vari- 
colored beads to indicate her sisterhood with Eve, busy in domestic 
pursuits; her husband, hunter, trapper and sometimes guide; children 
from tots to youth and maid, the first in puris naturalibus, the maid in 
the glory of her first string of beads to captivate the youth. 

This village, left over from a past generation, was a type of all prim- 
itive life, so Tom thought, life such as his own ancestors had lived in 
the Welch mountains and along the banks of the Weser and Elbe ; yet the 
veneer of civilization held the extremes of humanity apart. Tom was 
in touch with the primitive but not a part of it. His Indian companions 
placed a zone of silence between them. He could not enter into their 
life, try as he might, only observe it. It was not because of his indivi- 
duality, because a Florida cracker, Joe Cole, by name, visited the village 
frequently, and laid siege to the heart of a Seminole girl, a sister of Tiger, 
his guide, and she treated him with a frigidness scarcely to be expected 
in sub-tropical Florida. 

This was surprising to Tom, for personally Joe was more attractive 
than any of the Indian youths of the village and could give Lakee more 
of the things a young girl naturally craved. As hunter and guide, by 
days of intercourse had worn away some of the reserve between them, 
Tom asked the reason of Lakee's dislike of Joe Cole. Her brother 
straightened himself in the stern of the dugout, resting lightly on his 
punting pole, wrinkled his brow in a scowl, and grunted. 

"Long story — old story — two story — 'bout white man — 'bout two 
white mans! You wouldn't want to hear 'um! 

"I should like to hear them, if the telling would cause you no pain," 
replied Tom. 

im? ^i(iii""'iti> ,,,, 'i||i nil"* -"iiiii'-Mijii- •»lfIIl•--^I^m•"*•»*IlI ^, •""•^r^I»«•" , "■lIl* , " #T nj^nn||"ir»". t fi7':;;in^ ,if *n;"--ni 1 -»n; TT iT 

I The KedMam 173 i 

IIIIUl jkJLdi ii ili^ftt^^fflw^iiiii^jii tint «ni:.!!l ilJ.::ii.. , "i;:;:;:i,.: , ui i "-,i»:;;;;:; | ''- t iii!,H 

Tiger continued to stand erect, slipped the quid of tobacco from one 
cheek to the other, showing he had accepted the white man's amendment 
to the ancient Indian vice of smoking, ruminated, and finally, with many 
a pause, told his story — a double story — which is here reproduced, but 
not verbatim, as the English language is not rich enough to reproduce 
the Indian idiom. 

The story went back to the beginning of things — to the old dispen- 
sation, when the Indian lived in peace and war as lord of the land. As 
the smoke from his long reed pipe was slowly blown from his lips and 
circled in night above his wigwam door, he dreamed of another land — a 
fairy land — where the copper hue of mankind was purified into whiteness, 
and such as were thus purified were gods. Would they revisit the earth 
after their purification? Such a thing was possible. 

Well, the gods came — first in the east, then in the west. They were 
fair to look upon. They were powerful! The smoke from their nostrils 
could kill at a hundred paces! 

But the gods were cruel! They thought only of two things — gold 
and women. They fought, enslaved and beat men for the first; they 
stole the second, beat and cast them out. 

De Narvaez was the first to land in the west. He was welcomed with 
garlands ; he repaid with torture. Men can rebel against gods, and Hirri- 
higua, Tiger's ancestor, fought De Narvaez. He drove him, with his 
followers, into the sea — all but one, a youth, Juan Ortiz by name. He 
was captured. The chiefs debated as to what should be done with him. 
Some who had dreamed of fair gods, wanted to adopt him for good fortune's 
sake, but the less superstitious were for executing him. The latter out- 
numbered the former, and he would have been dealt with summary ven- 
geance had not the daughter of Hirrihigua, with womanly softness, fallen 
in love with him. Together they fled to a friendly chief, Muscoso. 
Their return was demanded and refused. A war ensued between the 
tribes lasting ten years, until big canoes, bearing other white men, arrived. 
De Soto was the chief of this contingent. When Juan Ortiz learned of 
this arrival, he deserted his Indian friends and the wife who had saved 
his life and joined his white friends. 

Instead of feeling thankful for his preservation, he led De Soto against 
Muscoso, and a bloody battle ensued. Muscoso's village was destroyed 
and he and the remnant of his tribe driven from its site. The blame was 
laid on Ortiz's wife and she was sent back to her father. Hirrihigua was 
hard pressed by De Soto at the time, and ten years of warfare had not 
softened his feelings toward his runaway daughter. A council of the 
tribe was called and she was tried. The chiefs smoked and pondered. 
By and by her father arose : 

"The daughter of Hirrihigua deserted her tribe and married a god. 

lilt. January ij 

II" Januaty M 

Consequently she has no tribe and the gods may take care of her!" 
Whereupon two burly warriors seized the young woman, marched her 
into the forest and bound her to a tree. 

Since the days of Hirrihigua's daughter, misalliance with a white man 
has been a crime in a woman. She is outlawed! She has no country! 
She can elope with him and live outside the pale of her tribe, but she 
cannot bring him to her family. It is the curse of Ortiz, and they would 
rather she should die than marry a white man. If she returns to the 
tribe after alliance, she is treated as was Ortiz's wife. 

The tragic force of the story and the awfulness of the punishment, 
caused a long period of silent thought to fall upon Tom. Tiger, also, 
lapsed into silence upon the conclusion of his narrative and leaned a long 
moment on his punting pole; then, with stoical indifference, pushed the 
dugout through a narrow, red-filled water way. A low island ran along 
one side, and he gazed intently among the live oaks and palmettos which 
covered it. 

Tom found his tongue. 

"Surely, your people do not inflict such punishment upon girls whose 
passions stray away from their kind, at the present day — do not out- 
Sparta Sparta?" 

The guide made no reply. He poked the nose of the dugout into an 
indentation of the insular shore line. 

"Do you want an answer?" he finally queried. 
Tom bowed. 

"Follow me, "commanded Tiger. 

They stepped from the dugout and brushed aside the tangled vegeta- 
tion. In the center of the island, stood a large live oak. Long wisps of 
Spanish moss hung from its limbs and creepers covered its trunk. Tigir 
approached the tree and poked aside the vines with his punting pole. 
Among the rope-like strands ascending the trunk, appeared some greenish- 
white ones, cris-crossing at irregular intervals the brownish-, grayish- 
green lianas. 

Tom looked at the tree-trunk, covered with the tangled mass of cord- 
age, and for a few moments did not comprehend what his companion was 
trying to show him. He drew nearer and eyed the struggling cords. 
The whitish-green strands next the trunk were the ribs of a human skele- 
ton, somewhat displaced and crumbling with time, but held by tendrils 
to a place near enough to their original location to indicate what their 
reassembled parts would form. As Tom concentrated his gaze, the 
iridescent glitter of beads could be discerned among the leaves; and near 
the low branches of the tree, what at first looked like strands of moss, 
turned out to be what were once the black tresses of an Indian girl. 

Navajo Notes 

By R. W. Shufeldt, Major, Medical Corps, U. S. Army. 

T REMINDS me very much of old times when I glance 
at the picture of mine which you publish in The Red 
Man forpctober, 1915, opposite page 46. I made the 
negative of that photograph at old Fort Wingate, 
New Mexico, somewhere along about 1884 or 1885, 
when I was post surgeon at that station. You are in 
error when you state, as you do in the legend to the 
illustration, that it is "A Typical Navajo Hogan and 
Family;" for such an hogan as there shown is by no 
means "typical," nor are any of the six Navajos shown in the plate any 
relation to each other, beyond being members of the same tribe of Indians. 

Many years ago I published, in the Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, an article on The Evolution of House-Building among 
the Navajos, and the photograph you now publish was one of the plates 
published with the article. If any one will take the trouble to look that 
article up, not only will an illustration of a typical hogan be found, but it 
will be appreciated that the one you now publish is a structure in the line 
of evolution of Navajo Indian house-building, which finally culminated 
in a single-room, rectangular hut that was, in all imp ortant respects, a very 
different kind of building as compared with the conical-shaped hogans 
which these Indians originally built for themselves. 

The Indian standing with his left hand on his hip in the picture is an 
old friend of mine; he was known as "Jake, the silversmith," and wonder- 
fully clever at making silver and copper trinkets out of coins and empty 
cartridge shells, which last he gathered on the firing-range for target prac- 
tice in the rear of the garrison. I still have, at this writing, one or two 
specimens of Jake's "jewelry," and these I described and published long 
years ago in various magazines and reports. 

Every Indian in that picture I saw nearly every day of my life at Win- 
gate, and I could write quite a story about them. Major Powell, former 
Chief of the U. S. Geological Survey, was so much taken with that photo- 
graph, that he had Mr. Jack Hillers, the well-known photographer to the 
Survey, make an enlargement of it, which was elegantly colored and al- 
most big enough for an ordinary window. I never knew what became of 
that beautiful piece of work, nor of the photographs of hogans that I made 
for the Major 

i 176 

!;; THEPEDMAM || ^ < 

The Navajo squaw, sitting on the ground by Jake, has in her hand a 
typical cradle made by those Indians over twenty years ago. Whether 
they continue to make the same style I cannot say; but I do remember 
purchasing the very one you see in the picture, and it is now in the col- 
lection of the anthropological department of the United States National 

At the time of which I speak, there was an old ex-trooper by the name 
of Benjamin Wittick, who was allowed to live in a wall tent, almost within 
the garrison limits. He was a first-class photographer, and had made 
hundreds of superb photographs of American Indians. At one time I 
tried to bring all his work and his Indian lore together, with the view of 
publishing a volume on the subject, reproducing the best of his pictures; 
but for reasons which will some day be set forth elsewhere, I failed in this, 
though the failure was no fault of my own. 

Wittick made a fine negative of "Chuna," the Navajo squaw men- 
tioned in a former paragraph, and during all these years I have kept a 
photograph made from it. I looked it up the other day and remounted 
it, and am letting you have it herewith as an illustration to the present 
notes. Chuna's baby is a half-blood by a white father, and was rather a 
nice little child. 

Even in those days it was by no means an easy matter to find a typical 
Navajo cradle, nor to buy it after your search had been rewarded by 
finding it. The one in the picture is of the same style as these Indians 
made them long before the white man encroached upon their territory. 

While at Wingate, I made a valuable series of negatives of Navajos, 
not only of the Indians themselves, but of such skulls as I could find; 
implements, mode of arrow-release for Dr. Edward S. Morse, and numer- 
ous other objects. Much of this material has already been published and 
my collection deposited in various museums in this country and Europe. 
I still have some of the material about me in my study-rooms, among 
other things the skull of old "Washee," — a Navajo woman employed by 
me as laundress while I lived at Wingate. She was murdered one night 
in a drunken brawl, in a hogan at the rear of my quarters. They buried 
her in the hogan and pulled the structure down over her shallow grave. 
Next spring, accompanied by my two little sons, I made an attempt to 
get Washee's whole skeleton, but succeeded only in getting the skull, as 
the Navajos on the other side of the fort were up as early as myself; they 
fired several shots at us which, in two instances, came uncomfortably 
close, finally compelling us to retire. I am sorry that I never got the 
entire skeleton, but the skull is facing me now on my study table. I 
collected a fine male skull of this tribe, presenting it to Sir William Turner, 
F.R.S., and it is now in the Museum of the University of Edinburgh. 

. — , 

1 ~n 

3 Creetr 

jVk ET me be a little kinder, 
>W Let me be a little blinder 
To the faults of those about me. 
Let me praise a little more; 
Let me be, when I am weary, 
Just a little bit more cheery; 
Let me serve a little better 
Those that I am striving for. 
Let me be a little braver 
When temptation bids me waver; 
Let me strive a little harder 
To be all that I should be: 
Let me be a little meeker, 
With the brother that is weaker, 
Let me think more of my neighbor 
And a little less of me. 
Let me be a little sweeter, 
Make my life a bit completer, 
By doing what I should do 
Every minute of the day. 
Let me toil, without complaining, 
Not a humble task disdaining, 
Let me face the summons calmly 
When death beckons me away. 


• — 


M ► 

Indian Dances: 

By W. McD. Tait in The Overland Monthly. 

HEN Columbus landed in the New World in 1492, he 
was greeted with a dance. It was a war dance exe- 
cuted by the red man. The Indian has never broken 
away from this early custom, and today we find great 
occasions celebrated in a manner similar to that first 
demonstration to the white man. 

In the minds of many people, all the dances of the 
North American Indians are war dances. As a matter 
of fact, there are numerous dances, extremely interest- 
ing, and most of them very old. Women as well as men participate 
in them, and they have nothing to do with warfare. Strange to say, in 
none of these Indian dances is there contact between the sexes. The 
bucks dance in one circle and the squaws in another. Few dances 
are wholly social, although some of them have that element. Practically 
all of them have a religious origin, and to-day retain their religious 

Indians are very musical, and have many songs in their own language. 
The drum seems to be the principal instrument among them ; but when 
they have opportunity, they learn the white man's music and the use of 
his instruments very quickly, rendering the most difficult music with 
great sweetness. On the Blood Reserve of the Blackfeet tribe in Alberta 
there is a brass band of twenty-one pieces led by the issuer of rations, that 
gives concerts in the towns surrounding the reserve. Another band of 
fifes and drums on the same reserve has given whole entertainments that 
were very pleasing. 

The red men have war songs which they used to sing before a 
battle; others, intensely sad, which they sing after the battle. Their love 
songs are not considered of a very high order. Each family has its own 
songs; each individual has his, usually composed by himself. Some of 
their songs are sacred. 

Some teachers, in their mistaken zeal, have crossed or smothered 
everything distinctly aboriginal in the young Indians. Franklin K. Lane, 
the Canadian-born Secretary of the United States Department of the 

179 4 

Interior, in a letter directing the appointment of Geoffrey O'Hara as 
instructor of native Indian music, said: 

"I think that it is the part of wisdom to develop in the young Indian 
an increased respect for all those things of beauty which their forefathers 
produced. Our efforts should be to make this generation proud of their 
ancestors and keep alive in them the memory of their wholesome legends 
and their aboriginal arts." 

Music for dances is supplied by a trained band of singers. The only 
accompaniment is a drum made by putting a skin over a circle of wood 
and allowing it to dry tightly. 

The Sun-dance is, perhaps, the most barbarous of all the orgies of 
the Indians, and has been observed in every known tribe of red man on 
the American Continent. The time was when all sorts of cruelties were 
the main feature of this gathering, which was held in the spring time as 
soon as the snow cleared and the earth began to warm from the sun's rays. 

The dance was the ceremony through which the Indian lad stepped 
from boyhood to the status of a warrior. It is too horrible for words. 
Ugly gashes are cut in the chest, skewers are thrust through these, and 
rawhide lariats attached to the ends and fastened to the sun lodge pole. 
The youth must tear himself loose by dancing around the pole and tugging 
until the strips of flesh to which the thongs are fastened give way. If the 
aspirant passed through the ordeal without exhibiting signs of pain or 
fear, he was declared a full-fledged brave and eligible to sit in the councils 
of his nation. 

Another method was to cut the flesh on the back and tie leather thongs 
through these flesh loops, and then fasten buffalo skulls to the thongs 
so that they would dangle clear of the ground. The candidate was to 
dance about till he had succeeded in tearing the loops and allowing the 
skulls to fall to the ground. This method was not as popular as the other 
because the brave could not afterward see the marks of the ordeal. It 
was always a great pleasure to the brave to bare his breast and exhibit 
the scars made by the tearing process. 

Indian mothers were as anxious that their sons should go through 
the ordeal as they were themselves. An incident is told by a Western 
writer which shows how the Indian mother looked upon it. An Indian 
lad was being put through the buffalo skull method, but his strength was 
not enough to tear out all the flesh-loops. He was about to faint away 
when his mother rode into the circle on a pony, and seizing the skull that 
still clung to the back of her son, she dashed away on the horse, dragging 
the boy with her. Soon the flesh broke and the young Indian boy was 
saved from the humility of failure. 

Before the ordeal comes, many back out. Sometimes after the thongs 
or skewers are put in, the victim loses courage. The wood or buffalo 

I IITheKedMah I >—> 1 

iHI.Ji»./ m i:;::::u^ , mi i ^ i ii^":;:* , :;ii:..!h .jm^ i^n-ia^ 

hide must then be removed by cutting the flesh loop, since it is against 
all law to draw it out endwise after it has been inserted in the flesh. 

The United States Government has long since forbidden the Sun- 
dance, but it was continued on Canadian reserves till the coming of the 
Royal Northwest Mounted Police about 1890. As a consequence, the 
annual gathering of the Indians in the spring time results in nothing more 
than dancing the old-time dances, chanting the brave acts of by-gone 
days, and propitiating the Sun by the bestowal of gifts which are fastened 
to the top of the central pole of the Sun-dance lodge. 

The Give-away dance is ranked by the Government authorities with 
the Sun-dance as very demoralizing, and has been stopped on most reserves. 
The Round dance of the Crees in Western Canada is a pleasure dance. 
Women are allowed to take part in it, but before their first dance they 
must give a substantial present to the leader of the dance. This present 
seems to make the person a sort of life member of the Round dance. 
Squaws and bucks dance separately without any contact. 

In nearly all the tribes of the North American Continent there are 
many dances representing animals. The buffalo dance is a most interest- 
ing affair. In it the hunters illustrate what they have gone through in 
the chase. Instead of bragging with their tongues, as does the white 
man, they use pantomime. Stealthily they describe the sneaking process 
of stalking game and dragging it home. 

In another dance a man represents a dog. He is made to look as 
much like one as possible, and is led forth by an Indian maiden who has 
tied her sash about his body, and leads him as a lady does her poodle, 
except that they are both keeping time to the steps of the dance. He 
constantly struggles to break away, and she makes rhythmic efforts to 
hold him. Sometimes he succeeds and rushes into houses for meat, bites 
persons on the leg, and otherwise carries out the idea of a dog on the 

The eagle dance is especially dramatic. The Indian who takes the 
part of the eagle is wonderfully made up. Over his head is drawn a sort 
of black cloth that covers the hair, and is pulled forward to form a beak. 
A red line makes the mouth of the eagle. On the body there is no cloth- 
ing except a short apron and patches of eagle or hawk down attached by 
gum to the flesh. The arms are made into wings by means of a cord 
strung with long hanging feathers stretched from hand to hand across 
the back, and a bunch of feathers at the back make a tail. His hands are 
painted yellow to look like claws. He is lured forth by the dropping of 
grain, and as he follows the trail he uses his arms as an eagle does his 
wings, and with his entire body he swoops and moves like the bird he is 
picturing, but always in time to the music. There is a dance to the bear 
and moose and many others, always with the combined dramatic idea 
and dancing movements. 

I *—> ITheKedMan i8i | 

Among the Indians of the far north, during the winter months of 
each year, a big ceremonial dance is given in the "Hoo-go" or public 
meeting hall. This is to please and propitiate the animal spirits. It is 
a real dance with feasting from early winter till almost spring. There 
are the most peculiar customs attached to this dance period. During 
the first day visitors have the privilege of asking for whatever they may 
desire in the line of food. The particular delicacy is "ice cream," which 
is simply a mixture of frozen blue berries and tallow. After the first day 
visitors must eat the food their hosts set before them. Each tribe tries 
to outdo the other in contortions, endurance, and dancing costumes. 
Each animal is impersonated by a dancer, who is trained months ahead 
for his work. These men are dressed in skins and fully represent the 
seal, bear, and walrus. They dance slowly in a circle made by the specta- 
tors, and imitate the movements and cries of the beasts each impersonates. 
They sing a sort of chant, in which the onlookers join. 

The Snake-dance, given every second year in the Hopi pueblos of the 
far south, is a dramatized prayer for rain at an appointed season. It is a 
grim and startling ceremony, real live rattlesnakes being used as messen- 
gers to carry to the gods of the underworld, who are supposed to have 
power over the rain cloud, the petitions of the Hopis. To the onlooker 
it seems impossible that venomous snakes can be handled so audaciously 
without inflicting deadly wounds, yet it is positively known that they 
are in no wise deprived of their power to do so. There are those who 
claim that they have seen the dancers bitten by their rattlesnake partners, 
but that the priests possess a secret antidote to which they resort in case 
of snakebite. To secure the snakes, the priests go out in pairs with dig- 
ging sticks and canvas bags, following their trails in the dust, and dig them 
out of their holes. 

The Indians of the Mississippi Valley hold a Corn-dance, which is a 
feature of the growing season where blanket Indians reside. Just when 
these dances will be held the white man never knows. Just how the 
festivities are conducted his eye is never supposed to see. Secretly the 
word is sent out and as secretly as possible the redskins gather. But the 
monotonous thrumming of tom-toms, the intermittent yell of squaws, 
the shrill squeals of the juveniles and the more dignified chan tings of the 
braves carry the tidings unmistakably when once the dance is on. 

These ceremonies are peculiar to the Mississippi Valley. Members 
of the tattered remnants of what were once powerful tribes, who are 
familiar figures on the streets of nearly every Mississippi River city, 
periodically become imbued with the desire to hold a tribal dance. Dirty, 
dusty, and travel stained, and often as not ravenously hungry, descendants 
and associates of the families of Winnishiek, Rain Cloud, Hawk Eye, 
Big Moon, Winnebigoshish, Waheta, Little Crow, Rain Maker and many 

\l 182 II T^e^dMan If ****** 4 

KXXXW'aCX btJbkJto^ 

other greater or less chieftains respond to the call and are promptly on 
hand to take part in the big feed which is usually an important adjunct 
of the dance festival. The Corn-dance is something akin to the Snake- 
dance in that it is to propitiate the rain god. 

While not in the strict sense of the term a dance, yet the potlatch of 
the coast Indians has dancing connected with it. Recent efforts to sup- 
press a celebration of the curious ceremony on Vancouver Island were 
bitterly resented by the Indians through their chiefs. They contend 
that the custom is one that conerns the Indians alone, and that it should 
not be interfered with. The potlatch is a sort of carnival of unselfishness 
in which the chief who gives away the greatest amount of goods and trin- 
kets receives the most honor. Naturally, the tribesmen delight in being 
showered with gifts by the chiefs, and the latter wish to maintain the 
right to give away as much as they like to whom they please. At the 
close of the giving of presents, a big dance and feast is held. 

The strangest of all Indian dances, perhaps, are those given under- 
ground. These are common among the Tewos in the Southern United 
States. No white man, it is said, has ever been permitted to see one. 
During the preparations for and progress of the dance, a careful guard is 
kept so that there may be no possibility of a white man stealing in. Large 
dugouts are made with long underground passages — and these, too, are 
carefully guarded to see that none but a Tewo is allowed to pass. 

The Indian will always dance. The desire to shake his feet is inborn, 
and no amount of civilization seems to uproot it. The character of Indian 
dances has necessarily changed considerably. Social dances are becom- 
ing more common, and on some of the reserves large buildings are being 
erected in which the more modern Indian dances are taught to the young 
Indians. None of the treaty Indians of either the United States or 
Canada have been known to adopt any of the white man's dances. The 
tango and the bunny-hug are foreign to them. They have not yet learned 
the way of dancing in each others' arms. 

$ Remember! 35 Remember! 


(Revised Version) 

REMEMBER, I remember, 
The house where I was born; 
The little window where the sun 
Game peeping in at morn. 
You'd hardly know the old place now, 

For dad is up to date, 
And the farm is scientific 
From the back lot to the gate. 

The house and barn are lighted 

With bright acetylene; 
The engine in the laundry 

Is run by gasoline, 
We have silos, we have autos, 

We have dynomos and things; 
A telephone for gossip, 

And a phonogroph that sings. 

The hired man has left us, 

We miss his homely face; 
A lot of college graduates 

Are working in his place. 
There's an engineer and fireman, 

A chauffer and a vet, 
'Lectrician and mechanic — 

Oh, the farm's run right, you bet. 

The little window where the sun 

Game peeping in at morn 
Now brightens up a bathroom 

That cost a car of corn. 
Our milkmaid is pneumatic 

And she's sanitary, too, 
But dad gets fifteen cents a quart 

For milk that once brought two. 


BROTHER, we have been 
told that you have been 
preaching to the white 
people in this place. These 
people are our neighbors. We 
are acquainted with them. We 
will wait a little while and see 
what effect your preaching has 
upon them. If we find it does 
them good, makes them honest 
and less disposed to cheat In- 
dians, we will consider again 
of what you have said.